(a) Passover Haggadah (for Christians)



Digression 4.5 "Dark Energy" or "Let there be Light"?


Man tries to measure the cosmos and "dark energy" overwhelms him.


Mankind 'shortening the universe's life'

By Roger Highfield, Science Editor




full article:




Forget about the threat that mankind poses to the Earth: our very ability to study the heavens may have shortened the inferred lifetime of the cosmos.

That does not mean the field of astronomy does direct harm.

But there is an odd feature of the theory that philosophers and scientists still argue about. In a nutshell, the theory suggests that quantum systems can exist in many different physical configurations at the same time. .....................

New Scientist reports a worrying new variant as the cosmologists claim that astronomers may have provided evidence that the universe may ultimately decay by observing dark energy, a mysterious anti gravity force which is thought to be speeding up the expansion of the cosmos.

............................... "Incredible as it seems, our detection of the dark energy may provide evidence that the universe will ultimately decay," says Prof Krauss.


Some mathematical theories suggest that, in the very beginning, there was a void that possessed energy but was devoid of substance. Then the void changed, converting energy into the hot matter of the big bang. But the team suggests that the void did not convert as much energy to matter as it could, retaining some, in the form of what we now call dark energy, which now accelerates the expansion of the cosmos.

.........................But the team suggests that the void did not convert as much energy to matter as it could, retaining some, in the form of what we now call dark energy, which now accelerates the expansion of the cosmos.

Like the decay of a radioactive atom, such shifts in energy state happen at random and it is possible

Thus, as a result of making cosmological observations of dark energy, we may have confirmed that we are in a state where the probability of its survival may fall exponentially.

"The intriguing question is this," Prof Krauss told the Telegraph. "If we attempt to apply quantum mechanics to the universe as a whole, and if our present state is unstable, then what sets the clock that governs decay?..................................

This is not the only damage to the heavens that astronomers may have caused. Our cosmos is now significantly lighter than scientists had thought after an analysis of the amount of light given out by galaxies concluded that some shone from lightweight electrons, not heavyweight atoms. In all, the new analysis suggests that the universe has lost about one fifth of its overall mass.

...............................If the source of so much x-ray energy is tiny electrons instead of hefty atoms, it is says the team as if billions of lights thought to come from billions of aircraft carriers were found instead to come from billions of extremely bright fireflies.

"This means the mass of these x-ray emitting clouds is much less than we initially thought it was," said Dr. Max Bonamente. Instead, they are produced by electrons travelling almost the speed of light (and




Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Nachmanides), better known as Ramban - the acronym of his Hebrew name - was one of the greatest Torah commentators.  From his commentary on Bereishis (Genesis):


"Realize that the heavens and all its components are made of one substance, and the earth and its components are made of one substance.  The Holy One, blessed be He, created these two out of nothing; only these two were created, everything else was fashioned from them.  This primeval matter, which the Greeks called hiyuli, is called in Hebrew tohu.  The word tohu is related to the word betohei in the Talmudic expression betohei al harishonos, "he regretted his former deeds." For if a person were to give a name [to this original matter], he is likely to regret his decision, have second thoughts, and call it by a different name, because [the prime substance] has not adopted a form to which the name could apply.  The form which this original matter eventually adopts is called in Hebrew bohu, which is a combination of the two words bo and hu, "in it (bo) there is it (hu)" [in other words: the form is something that has substance to it.]


The plain meaning of the verses is as follows:  In the beginning G-d created the heaven, meaning, He brought forth out of nothing the substance of heaven; and the earth, meaning, He brought forth out of nothing the substance of earth.  The earth includes [not just earth but] all four elements [fire, air, water, and earth], as found in the verse, Heaven and earth were completed (Bereishis 2:1) where earth includes the entire lower sphere [of existence].  We also find Praise Hashem from the earth: sea giants and all watery depths (Tehillim 148:7), and many other verses [indicating that earth refers to the whole world].


From this creation of formless primordial matter, which was like a tiny nonmaterial point, everything in heaven and earth was created.  The Hebrew word for "the" is es [אֵת] which means the essence of the thing.  the Sages said that the word es [אֵת] always comes to include something, for the Hebrew word asah  [אָתָה] - which has the same root as es [אֵת] - means came, as we find in the verse "Morning came and also night".  In our verse, the heaven and the earth too, the Rabbis expound that es [אֵת] hashamayim - the heaven - comes to include the sun, the moon, the stars, and the constellations; and the es [אֵת] of haaretz - the earth - comes to include the trees, the herbs, and Gan Eden. Thus, the two words es [אֵת] come to include all created things that have physical substance.


 "With one utterance G-d created the essence of heaven and earth and all their components.  The verse then [continues "the earth was tohu and bohu and darkness was on the face of the deep and the spirit of G-d was hovering over the water"].  With the first step of creation the earth was tohu, it had only an intangible quality.  When G-d gave it form, it became bohu.


This suffices to show that the idea of creation from something from nothing by God was a Jewish concept long ago:


In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was waste and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. (Genesis1:1-3)

This brings to mind the words of the Preacher:


"That which hath been is that which shall be; and that which hath been done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun."  - Ecclesiastes 1:9








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